2007-2008 Basic and Clinical Science Course Section 11: Lens by American Academy of Ophthalmology, Steven I. Rosenfeld, MD

By American Academy of Ophthalmology, Steven I. Rosenfeld, MD

Reports the anatomy, body structure, embryology, and pathology of the lens. additionally offers an outline of lens and cataract surgical procedure, and describes the problems of surgical procedure.

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5. WHY THESE BIASES EXIST The next question is why, in terms of the structure of the world, the probability distributions of the physical sources of line projections vary in this systematic manner as projected orientation changes. In other words, why are there fewer sources of relatively long vertical lines compared to horizontal lines, and why, more specifically, are there even fewer sources that project as relatively long lines at 20–30◦ from vertical? To understand the reasons, remember that almost all straight lines in the physical world are components of flat surfaces: a one-dimensional line, or even a close approximation thereof, rarely occurs in nature.

5% generated angles larger than 30◦ . 6A), the cumulative distribution of angle sources derived from the image database gives somewhat higher values for angles less than 90◦ , and somewhat lower values for angles greater than 90◦ . If, as our hypothesis about visual space supposes, perceptions of angle subtense are generated probabilistically on the basis of past human experience, then the angles seen should accord with their relative ranking on the empirical scale of angle subtenses defined by the cumulative probability distribution of the sources of angles.

2 Sampling range images using size contrast and assimilation templates. A) As in earlier chapters, pixels in an image region are represented by grid squares; the black pixels indicate a template of the surrounding circles in an Ebbinghaus stimulus overlaid on the image. The pixels covered by the template thus comprise a potential sample of the contextual elements of the Ebbinghaus stimulus. If the set of physical points corresponding to the pixels comprising each of the circles formed a geometrical plane in 3-D space, the set was accepted as a valid sample of the physical source of the contextual circles.

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