By American Academy of Ophthalmology, James C. Bobrow MD
Reports the anatomy, body structure, embryology and pathology of the lens. Covers the epidemiology, review and administration of cataracts and offers an outline of lens and cataract surgical procedure, together with distinctive events. part eleven additionally walks the reader via making a suitable differential prognosis and designing a administration plan for intraoperative and postoperative issues of cataract surgery.
Upon final touch of part eleven, readers will be capable to:
Identify congenital anomalies of the lens
List kinds of congenital and bought cataracts
Describe the organization of cataracts with getting older, trauma, medicines, and systemic and ocular diseases
Describe the review and administration of sufferers with cataract and different lens abnormalities
Read Online or Download 2014-2015 Basic and Clinical Science Course (BCSC): Section 11: Lens and Cataract PDF
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Extra info for 2014-2015 Basic and Clinical Science Course (BCSC): Section 11: Lens and Cataract
Conversely, sodium flows in through the back of the lens with the concentration gradient and then is actively exchanged for potassium by the epithelium. In support of this theory, an anteroposterior gradient was found for both ions: potassium was concentrated in the anterior lens; sodium, in the posterior lens. Most of the Na+,K+-ATPase activity is found in the lens epithelium and the superficial cortical fiber cells. The active-transport mechanisms are lost if the capsule and attached epithelium are removed from the lens but not if the capsule Anterior (aqueous humor) Inward active K• pump Outward active Na• transport Passive Na• diffusion Inward active Ca2• pump Inward active Posterior (vitreous humor) ) ---- - - -) ----) Passive diffusional exchange of Hp and solutes H2 0 and solutes The pump-leak hypothesis of pathways of solute movement in the lens.
ATP are produced for each glucose molecule utilized, whereas aerobic glycolysis produces an additional 36 molecules of ATP from each glucose molecule metabolized in the citric acid cycle (oxidative metabolism). Because of the low oxygen tension in the lens, only about 3% of the lens glucose passes through the Krebs citric acid cycle (tricarboxylic acid cycle) to produce ATP; however, even this low level of aerobic metabolism produces approximately 25% of the lens ATP. That the lens is not dependent on oxygen is demonstrated by its ability to sustain normal metabolism in a nitrogen environment.
Boston: Butterworth-Heinemann; 2001. Gillies MC, Kuzniarz M, Craig J, Ball M, Luo W, Simpson JM. Intravitreal triamcinoloneinduced elevated intraocular pressure is associated with the development of posterior sub capsular cataract. Ophthalmology. 2005; 112( 1): 139- 143. Jaffe GJ, Martin D, Callanan D, et al. Fluocinolone acetonide implant (Retisert) for noninfectious posterior uveitis: thirty-four-week results of a multicenter randomized clinical study. Ophthalmology. 2006;113(6):1020-1027. Kiernan DF, Mieler WF.