By Paul E. Ceruzzi
This enticing heritage covers sleek computing from the advance of the 1st digital electronic machine throughout the dot-com crash. the writer concentrates on 5 key moments of transition: the transformation of the pc within the overdue Nineteen Forties from a really expert medical software to a advertisement product; the emergence of small structures within the past due Nineteen Sixties; the start of private computing within the Nineteen Seventies; the unfold of networking after 1985; and, in a bankruptcy written for this version, the interval 1995-2001. the hot fabric makes a speciality of the Microsoft antitrust go well with, the increase and fall of the dot-coms, and the appearance of open resource software program, fairly Linux. in the chronological narrative, the booklet strains a number of overlapping threads: the evolution of the computer's inner layout; the impression of financial developments and the chilly battle; the long term function of IBM as a participant and as a aim for upstart marketers; the expansion of software program from a hidden aspect to an important personality within the tale of computing; and the ordinary factor of where of knowledge and computing in a democratic society. the focal point is at the usa (though Europe and Japan input the tale at the most important points), on computing consistent with se instead of on functions similar to man made intelligence, and on platforms that have been bought commercially and put in in amounts.
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Extra resources for A History of Modern Computing (2nd Edition)
Since 1990, computer systems with parallel processing structures have become more common, and genuine alternatives to the fetch-execute cycle have been accepted in a few limited markets. Elsewhere the von Neumann architecture, though much modified, prevails. The emergence of practical parallel designs reveals, however, the unifying effect of the von Neumann model as it influenced the computer design of the past five decades. From ENIAC to UNIVAC: First Transformation 41 The UNIVAC was going to cut through the Gordian knot of solving complex problems with punched card equipment or plugboard control, and its designers knew that.
There were several instances where the checks were printed at the last possible minute, and in the early months it was common to spend much more time doing the job with UNIVAC than had been spent with punched card equipment. No payrolls were late. IBM’s Response At the time of the UNIVAC’s announcement, IBM was not fully committed to electronic computation and was vigorously marketing its line of punched card calculators and tabulators. But after seeing the competitive threat, it responded with several machines: two were on a par with the UNIVAC; another was more modest.
Punched card equipment had been doing some of that work, but it had also been done with slide rules, mechanical calculators, analog computers, and the Card-Programmed Calculator. Eventually, however, customers applied the 701 to the same kinds of jobs the UNIVAC was doing: logistics for a military agency, financial reports, actuarial reports, payrolls (for North American Aviation), and even predicting the results of a presidential election for network television. )77 Unlike the UNIVAC, the 701’s central processor handled control of the slow input/output (I/O) facilities directly.