Agrobacterium: from biology to biotechnology by Tzvi Tzfira, Vitaly Citovsky

By Tzvi Tzfira, Vitaly Citovsky

Agrobacterium is the single mobile organism in the world that's evidently in a position to moving genetic fabric among the kingdoms of lifestyles, from prokaryotes to eukaryotes. reviews have exposed a wealth of knowledge at the technique of Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation and at the bacterial and host mobilephone components concerned with the an infection. Agrobacterium has been proven to genetically rework, below laboratory stipulations plenty of plant species and various non-plant organisms, indicating the actually easy nature of the transformation approach. it really is as a result now not marvelous that Agrobacterium and the genetic transformation itself have additionally turn into the focal point of various moral and criminal debates.

Agrobacterium is a entire ebook on Agrobacterium study, together with its background, software, simple biology discoveries, and results on human society. even though the booklet mostly specializes in supplying a close evaluate of just about all molecular occasions of the genetic transformation approach, it additionally offers insurance of moral and felony concerns proper to using Agrobacterium as a genetic transformation desktop. the result's an all-inclusive textual content which readers together with scientists and scholars all for plant genetic engineering will locate valuable as a reference resource for all significant features of the Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation of plant and non-plant organisms.

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Tartrate utilization plasmids (pTr) of A. vitis provide another example. , 1998). , 1995). The tar region consists of the ttuA-E genes, orfX, orfY and a second ttuC copy. , 1996). The tar regions are thus found in different plasmid contexts and are also present in other bacteria, like Pseudomonas putida (Tipton and Beecher, 1994). Two tumor-inducing plasmids, pTiAB3 and pTiAT6, also carry tar genes. pTiAB3 and pTiAT6 belong to the IncRh1/2 group, pTrS4 to IncRh2, pTrAT6, pTrAB4 and pTrRr4 to IncRh4, while pTrTm4, pTrAB3 and pTrNW221 belong to other, as yet unidentified Inc groups (Szegedi and Otten, 1998).

Hot water treatment to eliminate A. , 2003). Although such heat treatment kills A. vitis in vitro, a few percent of the pathogen cells survive in vivo when canes are treated. This limits the application of this simple method. The reason for the difference between in vivo and in vitro treatments is unknown. Shoot-tip and apical meristem cultures can also be used to obtain Agrobacterium-free plants. Although in vitro propagation of crop plants is rather time-consuming and needs laboratory equipment, it is very reliable.

1999). The host range of Agrobacterium is determined by bacterial and plant factors. The former include bacterial virulence genes and T-DNA oncogenes, the latter plant genes required for transformation and tumor formation (see other chapters in this volume). Besides these genetic factors tissue type and physiological status of the plant may also influence efficient transformation and tumor formation. For example, monocottyledons are known as non-hosts of Agrobacterium, but meristematic cells of several monocotyledons have been successfully transformed under laboratory conditions (reviewed in Smith and Hood, 1995).

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