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Extra info for Air-sea interaction: laws and mechanisms
5 The Evidence on Momentum Transfer 21 The Evidence on Momentum Transfer Meteorologists have expended a great deal of effort on the empirical determination of a momentum transfer law for the air-sea interface. Hundreds of contributions to the subject have appeared in the literature in the past few decades. , 1992; Yelland and Taylor, 1996). Here we can only give a glimpse of this vast effort, prior to examining the evidence on the momentum transfer law. Dimensional arguments above revealed the potential complexity of such a law, while Charnock’s formula for it, distilled from observation, held out the hope of great simplification.
The rate of entropy change is now the right-hand side divided by T . We may then identify Ft /T as entropy flux, its divergence as the net outflow of entropy, and the stress-rate of strain product, −u w (dU/dz)/T , as the rate of entropy transfer to turbulence. This leaves the buoyancy flux term, w b /T , work done by gravity, that is neither a flux-divergence nor an admissible contribution to internal entropy production because it can be negative. The total entropy change, however, is now not only ε/T .
These transfer laws do not exploit what we know about eddy transfer processes, and do not conform to Onsager’s theorem, relating the scalar Fluxes to two Forces, the wind speed driving momentum flux and the temperature or humidity excess driving scalar fluxes. They are, however, practical and simple to use. Whether or how C T and C E vary with wind speed and buoyancy flux is what a number of workers have investigated and presented in the form of equations or graphs. In a lucid and authoritative paper, Smith (1988) summarized the empirical evidence on heat and vapor transfer available prior to HEXOS, in terms of the coefficients C T and C E .