Antidiabetic Agents: Recent Advances in their Molecular and by H.P.T. Ammon, H.U. Häring, M. Kellerer, H. Laube, L.

By H.P.T. Ammon, H.U. Häring, M. Kellerer, H. Laube, L. Mosthaf, E.J. Verspohl and M.A. Wahl (Eds.)

Quantity 27, the 1st thematic quantity within the sequence, offers an outline of current wisdom with reference to the pharmacological and scientific elements of antidiabetic medicines. It goals to stimulate additional attention of attainable innovations within the improvement of recent antidiabetic medicinal drugs.

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Extra resources for Antidiabetic Agents: Recent Advances in their Molecular and Clinical Pharmacology

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3 Isoforms of the Insulin Receptor . 5 Functional Domains of the Insulin Receptor . 1 Functional Domains of the ~-subunit . 2 Functional Domains of the/3-subunit . 3 SignalTransduction . 1 Basic Characteristics of Transmembrane Signalling through the Insulin Receptor Kinase . 1 The Search for Tyrosine-phosphorylated Proteins . 2 Insulin Receptor Substrate-1 (IRS-1) in Post-kinase Signalling . 5 Phosphatases . 6 Serine Kinases Modulating the Insulin Receptor Functions . 7 GTP-binding Proteins . 8 Phospholipases and Release of Chemical Mediators from Membrane Glycolipids 4 Effector Systems of Insulin Signals: A Limited Selection .

At a n u m b e r fat. e. stimulation of RNA and DNA synthesis in concert with the other above-described anabolic effects. Insulin action involves rapid events (seconds to minutes) such as the stimulation of ion and glucose transport, stimulation of phospholipid turnover, generation of mediators and enzyme regulation including glycogen synthase, pyruvate dehydrogenase, triacylglycerol lipase and phosphorylase among others. Insulin also stimulates slow events (minutes to hours) such as the activation of amino acid transport, protein and lipid synthesis or stimulation of RNA and DNA synthesis.

1993). , 1993). 30 ANTIDIABETIC AGENTS Preproreceptor [1370 or 1382 aa] e~-Subunit [719 or 731 aa] Binding 103 Lys 460 Asn15. ////////////////////2 "/////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////~ 944-960 Tyr Substrate - binding intemalization ~1 966 "-:" 13-Subunit620 aa [ 996 Gly 1018 Lys ATP-binding 1146 1150 Tyr 1151 Autoactivation 1293 1294 Ser Inhibition 1316 Tyr 1322 Growth signal 1336 Thr Inhibition (PKC) Surface expression FIG. 8. Functional domains of the insulin receptor.

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