At the Size Limit - Effects of Miniaturization in Insects by Alexey A. Polilov

By Alexey A. Polilov

This e-book addresses microinsects, their constitution and their modifications from better kinfolk. furthermore, it discusses structural alterations that accompany severe diminution in residing organisms, evolutionary innovations that support bugs to stay within the microworld, and components that restrict the dimensions of animals. It additionally takes a cautious examine the aptitude advantages of the examine of microinsects for fixing biotechnological and primary medical difficulties. Miniaturization isn't just a development in know-how: it's also one of many developments within the evolution of existence. the various difficulties sleek engineers are nonetheless being affected by have been solved through nature thousands of years in the past. the realm of microscopic organisms, invisible to the bare eye, is throughout us. Microinsects — the tremendous various variety of miniature bugs lower than a millimeter lengthy — are essentially the most fascinating parts of this microworld. Having developed to the dimensions of unicellular organisms, the smallest bugs controlled not just to maintain their structural complexity, but in addition to conform a few novel beneficial properties no longer present in greater insects.

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N. (1970). Ocoбeннocти cтpoeния пoлoвoй cиcтeмы ceнoeдoв и ee cиcтeмaтичecкoe знaчeниe (Peculiar features of the reproductive system of Psocoptera and its taxonomic importance). Entomologiceskoe Obozrenie, 69(2), 317–346. Wigglesworth, V. B. (1953). The principles of insect physiology. London: E. P. Dutton. Wong, S. , & Thornton, I. W. B. (1968). The internal morphology of the reproductive systems of some psocid species. Proceedings of the Royal Entomological Society of London Series A General Entomology, 43, 1–12.

Funktionsmorphologie an spezialbildungen der fühlergeißel von Psocoptera und anderen Paraneoptera. Zeitschrift für Morphologie der Tiere, 81(2), 137–159. Vyashnikova, V. N. (1970). Ocoбeннocти cтpoeния пoлoвoй cиcтeмы ceнoeдoв и ee cиcтeмaтичecкoe знaчeниe (Peculiar features of the reproductive system of Psocoptera and its taxonomic importance). Entomologiceskoe Obozrenie, 69(2), 317–346. Wigglesworth, V. B. (1953). The principles of insect physiology. London: E. P. Dutton. Wong, S. , & Thornton, I.

Midgut long and wide, occupying considerable part of volume of abdomen, in anterior part forming short processes directed anteriad. Walls of midgut formed by strongly flattened cells (9–13 in cross-section). Muscles of midgut not found. Peritrophic membrane not found. Hindgut divided into small intestine and rectum, small intestine forming short loop. Rectum with several rectal ampullae. Boundary between mid- and hindgut bearing four Malpighian tubules, shaped as long slender tubes that form several loops in posterior half of abdomen.

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