Atlas of Oceans: A Fascinating Hidden World by John Farndon

By John Farndon

Seventy in keeping with cent of our planet's floor is roofed with water, yet most traditional atlases specialise in the opposite thirty in keeping with cent. This attention-grabbing and fantastically provided survey of the world's oceans and what lives inside of them is released in organization with the Census on Marine existence, a decade-long medical initiative among researchers from over eighty nations to assessing and explaining the wealthy range and abundance of undersea existence. each point of the oceans is explored, from the seabed, continental cabinets, currents, water move and waves, to all of the natural world that calls those areas domestic. every one ocean (the Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, Southern, Arctic, the Seas of Europe, the Eurasian Inland Seas and the South China Sea) is tested in nice element, revealing its features, underwater topography, imperative species and specific good points, together with the results of habitat erosion. themes lined contain: - Coastlines, shores, estuaries, salt marshes - the conflict of guy and flora and fauna - Temperate waters - plankton, seaweed forests and the Newfoundland nice Banks - Tropical waters - coral reefs, mangrove swamps and seagrass meadows - Polar waters - floating ice, migrations, lifestyles underneath the ice - The open ocean - currents, CO2 garage means, worldwide warming and acidification - the sea deeps - the mysterious twilight global and the least explored of all environments.

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Extra resources for Atlas of Oceans: A Fascinating Hidden World

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The volcanoes created in this way are typically very violent, because contamination by materials from the overlying plate makes the magma very sticky and rich in gases so that it erupts in explosive fits and starts. The Pacific is surrounded by a ring of violent volcanoes like this, aptly named the Ring of Fire. It is not only volcanoes that make subduction zones particularly violent places. As the subducted plate shudders down into the mantle, the vibration can set off earthquakes, creating a Wadati-Benioff zone – a zone where deepfocus earthquakes originate, up to 700 km (435 miles) down.

The width of the continental shelf varies considerably, from just a few kilometres wide off Chile to 1,500 km (932 miles) in the Russian Arctic. It is narrowest along ‘active’ plate margins, where g Known as the monkfish in Europe, the goosefish is one of the stranger inhabitants of the continental shelf seabed, preying on just about anything from herring to seabirds. Its delicate flesh has made it a target for bottom trawling, which destroys its seabed habitat. h This computer model built from sonar data reveals the shallow flatness of the continental shelf off California – it is so clearly part of the continent even though it is underwater, and then the seafloor suddenly plunges sharply down the almost clifflike continental slope to the deep ocean.

Of the world’s 20-odd major trench systems, 17 are in the Pacific, with only the Puerto Rico trench and the Sandwich Island trench in the Atlantic and just the Java trench in the Indian Ocean. The Pacific trenches are the deepest, too, with five of them plunging more than 10,000 m (32,800 ft) – easily enough to entirely swallow Mount Everest. The deepest of all is the Mariana Trench off the Mariana Islands in the Pacific, which, in the small slot known as the Challenger Deep, descends nearly 11,000 m (36,000 ft), the deepest known point in the oceans.

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