By Craig Cook
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Additional info for Beginning HTML with CSS and XHTML: Modern Guide and Reference
Uk/main/language_codes. • xml:lang: Also specifies the language in which the enclosed content is written. This is the XML format for the lang attribute, as it should be used in XML documents. XHTML documents are both XML and HTML (depending on how the server delivers them), so both the lang and xml:lang attributes may be applied to an element, both with the same language code as their value. Focus Attributes When some elements—especially links and form controls—are in a preactive state, they are said to have focus because the browser’s “attention” is concentrated on that element, ready to activate it.
Wouldn’t be valid). Quoting attribute values was optional in HTML but is required in XHTML Strict. Some attributes don’t require a value in HTML (an attribute without a value is called a minimized attribute), but all attributes must have a C H APTE R 2 ■ XH T ML A ND CS S BA SI CS value in XHTML—minimizing attributes isn’t allowed. Like tag names, attribute names must be lowercase in XHTML but aren’t case-sensitive in HTML. Attribute values are never case-sensitive, especially since some values might need to use capital letters.
Any markup, text, or even comments appearing before the doctype declaration will throw most modern browsers into quirks mode, with often-unpredictable results. Designing websites with CSS is considerably easier and the results are more consistent when the document is rendered in compliance mode. Hence, including a complete and correct doctype is essential. And because a doctype is already a required part of a valid web document, modern browsers will always render your pages in compliance mode if you build your documents correctly.