Biological Oceanographic Processes by Timothy Parsons, M. Takahashi and B. Hargrave (Auth.)

By Timothy Parsons, M. Takahashi and B. Hargrave (Auth.)

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The final stage in the ascent migration was characterized by a reduced rate of ascent as the animals approached the surface, followed by a period when the animals gradually dispersed themselves in the surface layers. The descent followed the reverse process and commerced 1 or 2 hr before sunrise. Diel variations in the rate of photosynthesis are quite apparent in that photosynthetic organisms require light for autotrophic growth; however, less obvious diurnal changes occur in the physiological response of phytoplankters to light.

1 7 . Summary of seasonal cycles; in plankton communities (•( Zooplankton biomass (modified from Heinrich, 1 9 6 2 ) ) . changes in D I S T R I B U T I O N S OF P L A N K T O N A N D NUTRIENTS found in oceans. According to Sournia (1969) and Blackburn et al (1970) there is very little evidence for predominant maxima and minima associated with seasonal events. A succession of small increases and decreases in phytoplankton and standing may the year and these are largely determined by local weather conditions and the movement of water masses.

The conventional p l a n k t o n net must in fact be regarded as highly destructive both of many fragile organisms as well as of the true small-scale distribution of Z o o p l a n k t o n in the sea. The vertical component of plankton patchiness is determined by a variety of factors including light intensity, density gradients and the availability of nutrients at the surface. The vertical migration of Zooplankton and their aggregation at specific depths has been reviewed b y Banse (1964). In general vertical movement appears to be related either to the life history of a species or to its feeding habits.

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