By James G. Speight, Karuna K. Arjoon
With petroleum-related spills, explosions, and overall healthiness matters within the headlines nearly each day, the difficulty of remediation of petroleum and petroleum items is taking over expanding value, for the survival of our surroundings, our planet, and our future. This booklet is the 1st of its sort to discover this hard factor from an engineering and medical standpoint and supply ideas and moderate classes of motion
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Extra resources for Bioremediation of Petroleum and Petroleum Products
1996. Environmental Technology Handbook. Taylor & Francis, Washington, DC. , and Lee, S. 2000. Environmental Technology Handbook. 2nd Edition. Taylor & Francis, New York. G. 2005. Environmental Analysis and Technology for the Refining Industry. , Hoboken, New Jersey. G. 2007. The Chemistry and Technology of Petroleum 4th Edition. CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group, Boca Raton, Florida. L. 1994. Biotechnology for the Treatment of Hazardous Waste. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida. M. 1989. " In Transport and Fate of Contaminants in the Subsurface.
Apparently, it is this physical state that strongly influences their biodegradation (Bartha and Atlas, 1977). Primary attack on intact hydrocarbons requires the action of oxygenases, and, therefore, requires the presence of free oxygen. In the case of 18 BlOREMEDIATION OF PETROLEUM AND PETROLEUM PRODUCTS alkanes, mono-oxygenase attack results in the production of alcohol. Most microorganisms attack alkanes terminally, whereas some perform sub-terminal oxidation. The alcohol product is oxidized finally into an aldehyde.
During bioremediation, microbes utilize chemical contaminants in the soil as an energy source and, through oxidation-reduction reactions, metabolize the target contaminant into usable energy for microbes. By-products (metabolites) released back into the environment are typically in a less toxic form than the parent contaminants. For example, petroleum hydrocarbons can be degraded by microorganisms in the presence of oxygen through aerobic respiration. The hydrocarbon loses electrons and is oxidized, while oxygen gains electrons and is reduced.