Cardiac Remodeling: Mechanisms and Treatment (Fundamental by Barry Greenberg

By Barry Greenberg

Exploring the reasons, mechanisms, and pathophysiology of cardiac home improvement, this reference bargains designated descriptions of a number of the elements of the reworking procedure, in addition to new healing interventions and up to date and destiny customers for the therapy of cardiac home improvement.

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J Mol Cell Cardiol 1994; 26(3):279–292. 18. Anand IS, Ferrari R, Kalra GS, Wahi PL, Poole-Wilson PA, Harris PC. Edema of cardiac origin. Studies of body water and sodium, renal function, hemodynamic indexes, and plasma hormones in untreated congestive cardiac failure. Circulation 1989; 80(2): 299–305. 19. Cohn JN, Levine TB, Olivari MT, et al. Plasma norepinephrine as a guide to prognosis in patients with chronic congestive heart failure. N Engl J Med 1984; 311(13):819–823. 20. Swedberg K, Eneroth P, Kjekshus J, Wilhelmsen L.

Abnormal subendocardial blood flow in pressure overload hypertrophy is associated with pacing-induced subendocardial dysfunction. Circ Res 1989; 65:555–1564. 44. Sugden PH. Signalling in myocardial hypertrophy. Circ Res 1999; 84:633–646. 45. Borg TK, Burgess ML. Holding it all together: organization and functions of the extracellular matrix of the heart. Heart Failure 1993; 8:230–238. 46. Yamamoto K, Dang Q, Maeda Y, Huang H, Kelley RA, Lee RT. Regulation of cardiomyocyte mechanotransduction by the cardiac cycle.

With its growth, eccentric hypertrophy increases the stroke volume of the heart enabling it to increase pumping capacity (stroke volume) to match the increase in nutrient demand of the body. However, as eccentric hypertrophy develops, the increase in the radius in the Laplace equation would have the consequence of increasing afterload on the ventricle, in turn impairing shortening of the myocytes, reducing ventricular ejection. Fortunately, as eccentric hypertrophy develops, it is offset by a concomitant increase in wall thickness provided by concurrent concentric hypertrophy.

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