Cardiovascular Imaging: Arterial and Aortic Valve by Elena Aikawa

By Elena Aikawa

This publication presents finished experiences on our latest realizing of the molecular and mobile mechanisms underlying atherosclerosis and calcific aortic valve disorder (CAVD) as visualized in animal types and sufferers utilizing optical molecular imaging, PET-CT, ultrasound and MRI. as well as proposing updated info at the multimodality imaging of particular pro-inflammatory or pro-calcification pathways in atherosclerosis and CAVD, the ebook addresses the exciting factor of even if cardiovascular calcification is an inflammatory ailment, as has been lately supported through a number of preclinical and medical imaging stories. with a purpose to familiarize researchers and clinicians from different specialties with the fundamental mechanisms concerned, chapters at the basic pathobiology of atherosclerosis and CAVD also are integrated. The imaging chapters, written by means of a few of the optimum investigators within the box, are so geared up as to bare the character of the concerned mechanisms as affliction progresses.

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Higher levels of advanced glycation endproducts in human carotid atherosclerotic plaques are associated with a rupture-prone phenotype. Eur Heart J. 2014;35:1137–46. 106. Tavakoli S, Zamora D, Ullevig S, Asmis R. Bioenergetic profiles diverge during macrophage polarization: implications for the interpretation of 18F-FDG PET imaging of atherosclerosis. J Nucl Med. 2013;54:1661–7. 107. Tawakol A, Migrino RQ, Hoffmann U, Abbara S, Houser S, Gewirtz H, Muller JE, Brady TJ, Fischman AJ. Noninvasive in vivo measurement of vascular inflammation with F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography.

6 Oxidative Stress Imaging Oxidative stress markedly increases in atherogenic conditions, and ROS promote inflammatory cell activation, lipid oxidation, and apoptosis events that drive plaque development and progression [138]. One method of oxidative stress imaging has focused on developing antibodies that detect by-products of lipid oxidation. , MDA2, E06, and IK17) showed the feasibility of assessing qualitatively and quantitatively oxidative stress in atherosclerotic lesions [139, 140]. Another strategy for oxidative stress imaging involves targeting the ROS-producing enzymes that are made by cells within atherosclerotic plaques.

Activation of monocyte/macrophage functions related to acute atheroma complication by ligation of cd40: induction of collagenase, stromelysin, and tissue factor. Circulation. 1997;96:396–9. 24. Moore KJ, Tabas I. Macrophages in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Cell. 2011;145:341–55. 28 T. J. Croce 25. Toutouzas K, Synetos A, Nikolaou C, Tsiamis E, Tousoulis D, Stefanadis C. Matrix metalloproteinases and vulnerable atheromatous plaque. Curr Top Med Chem. 2012;12:1166–80. 26. Rademakers T, Douma K, Hackeng TM, Post MJ, Sluimer JC, Daemen MJ, Biessen EA, Heeneman S, van Zandvoort MA.

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