Cardiovascular Physiology Concepts by Richard E Klabunde PhD

By Richard E Klabunde PhD

Now in its moment version, this hugely obtainable monograph lays a beginning for realizing of the underlying strategies of ordinary cardiovascular functionality. scholars of medication and similar disciplines welcome the book’s concise assurance as a pragmatic accomplice or substitute to a extra mechanistically orientated method or an encyclopedic body structure textual content. a spotlight on well-established cardiovascular ideas displays contemporary, largely approved learn from the field.

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Antiarrhythmic drugs) also affect SA nodal rhythm. Calcium channel blockers, for example, cause bradycardia by inhibiting L-type calcium channels, which reduces slow inward Ca++ currents during phase 4 and phase 0. , β-blockers and M2 receptor antagonists; β-adrenoceptor agonists) alter pacemaker activity. Digoxin causes bradycardia by increasing parasympathetic activity and inhibiting the sarcolemmal Na+/ K+-ATPase, which leads to depolarization. 6/11/2011 10:28:38 AM CHAPTER 2 • ELECTRICAL ACTIVITY OF THE HEART Arrhythmias Caused by Abnormal Action Potential Generation 21 Early Afterdepolarizations 0 TRIGGERED ACTIVITY A second mechanism that can lead to abnormal generation of action potentials is called triggered activity.

To summarize, “slow response” action potentials found in SA nodal cells primarily depend on changes in gCa++ and gK+ conductances, with “funny” currents (If) and changes in gCa++ and gK+ conductances playing a role in the spontaneous depolarization. indd 19 19 per minute. Heart rate, however, can vary between low resting values of 50 to 60 beats/ min and over 200 beats/min. These changes in rate primarily are controlled by autonomic nerves acting on the SA node. At low resting heart rates, vagal influences are dominant over sympathetic influences.

This new construction of the electrical axis is called the axial reference system. Although the designation of lead I as being 0°, lead II as being +60°, and so forth is arbitrary, it is the accepted convention. With this axial reference system, a wave of depolarization oriented at +60° produces the greatest positive deflection in lead II. A wave of depolarization oriented +90° relative to the heart produces equally positive deflections in both leads II and III. In the latter case, lead I shows no net deflection because the wave of depolarization is heading perpendicular to the 0°, or lead I, axis (see ECG rules).

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