Crude Oil Fouling: Deposit Characterization, Measurements, by Francesco Coletti, Geoffrey Hewitt

By Francesco Coletti, Geoffrey Hewitt

With construction from unconventional rigs carrying on with to amplify and refineries grappling with the demanding situations of shale and heavier oil feedstocks, petroleum engineers and refinery managers needs to make sure that apparatus used with today’s crude oil is protected against fouling deposits Crude Oil Fouling addresses this overarching problem for the petroleum neighborhood with transparent causes on what factors fouling, present versions and new methods to judge and examine the formation of deposits, and the way today’s versions might be utilized from lab test to onsite box usability for not only the refinery, yet for the rig, platform, or pipeline.

Crude Oil Fouling is a must have reference for each petroleum engineer’s library that offers the elemental framework had to study, version, and combine the simplest fouling techniques and operations for crude oil platforms.

  • Defines the main serious variables and occasions that reason fouling
  • Explains the results of fouling and its impression on operations, safeguard, and economics
  • Provides the technical versions to be had to higher expect and dispose of the opportunity of fouling in any crude system

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Extra resources for Crude Oil Fouling: Deposit Characterization, Measurements, and Modeling

Sample text

Is greater than one, asphaltenes are expected to precipitate out. For such unstable oils, it has been found that precipitated asphaltenes have compositions that are similar to those of fouling deposits (Watkinson, 2005) and it has been assumed (Watkinson, 2005) that asphaltene fouling is simply a case of particulate deposition complicated by precipitation and agglomeration processes. 2) provides a useful indication of stability, it has been argued that its use alone is not sufficient to predict asphaltene precipitation over a wide range of compositions.

56 MW per month when antifoulants were added to the crude stream. They estimated the cost of chemicals at around US$392,300 per year (2014 basis), which was paid back by the 65% reduction in fouling and associated decrease in the number of cleanings required per year. Despite some success stories such as the one above and the optimism of Canapary (1961) who stated that “a complete antifouling program will solve process side fouling in oil refineries”, a chemical solution capable of eliminating fouling seems to be still lacking.

Over the years, many gaps in research seem to be filling. 1 Evolution over time of the 5 Â 5 fouling matrix summarizing the current level of understanding of fouling mechanisms and processes: (a) original 5 Â 5 fouling matrix Epstein (1983); (b) interpretation by Bohnet (1987) and (c) by researchers attending the 2009 Heat Exchanger Fouling and Cleaning conference in Austria (M€ uller-Steinhagen et al. 2009b). Light to dark shading indicates increase in level of understanding (Coletti, 2010). 00002-6 © 2015 Elsevier Inc.

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