By Debabrata Mukherjee, Sanjay Rajagopalan
This article discusses the elemental elements of multislice CT angiography with chapters on technical ideas, simple test approach for peripheral vascular imaging with multislice CT, picture reconstruction with multislice CT, radiation doses, and distinction agent management. medical purposes for every significant vascular territory are lined in-depth, with transparent descriptions of the exam strategy for assessing the peripheral vasculature together with the aorta to realize a number of vascular pathologies. The part on MR angiography offers a entire assessment of the present nation of magnetic resonance (MR) vascular imaging. the fundamental rules and technical good points of MR angiography are defined, with chapters on basics of MR angiography and standard pulse sequences and distinction dosing. particular chapters specialise in each one specific vascular territory together with the extracranial and intracranial flow, the pulmonary move, the thoracic and the belly aorta, the renal, and mesenteric circulate and either the reduce and the higher extremity move. effortless to stick to medical protocols for angiographic imaging for the various vascular areas are supplied. The textual content additionally addresses imaging of the venous movement utilizing MR and CT angiography.
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Additional info for CT and MR Angiography of the Peripheral Circulation: Practical Approach with Clinical Protocols
DLP can be related to E by the formula E ϭ EDLP ϫ DLP (6) where EDLP, measured in units of mSv/(mGyϫcm), is a body region-specific conversion factor. The most commonly used EDLP values are those of the European Guidelines on Quality Criteria for Computed Tomography (1999), although newer values are reported in the 2004 CT Quality Criteria. These EDLP values are determined using Monte Carlo methods, averaged for multiple scanners. 3. Thus, for an actual study E can be determined from equations (2) through (6) with knowledge of the CTDI100 measurements, total nominal scan width or beam collimation, distance between scans, length irradiated, and region of the body scanned.
15). The rotation time should be chosen according to the heart rate of the patient, in order to avoid resonance effects, where the temporal resolution is suboptimal. 15 Voxel-dependent temporal resolution variation for different slices (a). Brighter areas correspond to decreased temporal resolution whilst darker areas correspond to increased temporal resolution. The variation is caused by different illumination intervals and heart rate variations during the scan. Temporal resolution variation depending on the heart rate and the pitch (b).
Standard flat X-ray detectors have an element matrix of about 1k times 1k detector elements), FDK-based methods are likely to fail to deliver the best possible image quality due to their approximate character. In this case, exact or iterative reconstruction approaches promise to deliver better results. Iterative reconstruction approaches have the further advantage to incorporate, for example, noise models in order to improve the SNR of the reconstruction. Phase-correlated cardiac CT The advent of faster gantry speeds and multi-row detectors with volume coverage has made imaging in specific phases of the cardiac cycle possible.