Diabetic Retinopathy by Jose Cunha-vaz

By Jose Cunha-vaz

This ebook addresses diabetic retinopathy, a watch sickness that continues to be one of many major factors of imaginative and prescient loss if no longer clinically determined and controlled correctly. It goals to hide the full spectrum of the sickness by means of describing its medical identity and characterization, pathophysiology, epidemiology, and scientific and surgical administration. Diabetic Retinopathy additionally bargains an entire review of the current realizing of diabetic retinopathy, overlaying present perform but additionally together with unique contributions that provide novel views for taking a look at and addressing this illness. the writer has devoted his lifetime to the learn of diabetic retinal affliction and has prepared this publication round his own event yet even as giving the mandatory info for up-to-date administration of diabetic retinopathy. Diabetic Retinopathy may be specifically priceless for postgraduate scholars in diabetology, retina experts and researchers.

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G. without overt CVD and under the age of 40), statin therapy should be considered in addition to lifestyle therapy if LDL cholesterol remains above 100 mg/dl or in those with multiple CVD risk factors. 6 mmol/l). 8 nmmol/l), using a high dose of a statin, is an option. (B) • If drug-treated patients do not reach the above targets on maximal tolerated statin therapy, a reduction in LDL cholesterol of ∼30–40% from baseline is an alternative therapeutic goal. 3 mmol/l) in women are desirable. However, LDL cholesterol-targeted statin therapy remains the preferred strategy.

Lowering of blood pressure with regimens based on a variety of antihypertensive drugs, including ACE inhibitors, ARBs, β-blockers, diuretics, and calcium channel blockers, has been shown to be effective in reducing cardiovascular events. , 2007). , 2002). In people with diabetes, inhibitors of the reninangiotensin system (RAS) may have unique advantages for initial or early therapy of hypertension. In a nonhypertension trial of high-risk individuals, including a large subset with diabetes, an ACE inhibitor reduced CVD outcomes (HOPE, 2000).

Very little clinical trial evidence exists for type 2 patients under the age of 40, or for type 1 patients of any age. In the Heart Protection Study, the subgroup of 600 patients with type 1 diabetes (lower age limit 40 years) had a proportionately similar reduction in risk as patients with type 2 diabetes, although not statistically significant (Heart Protection Study Collaborative Group, 2003). Although the data are not definitive, consideration should be given to similar lipid-lowering goals in type 1 diabetic patients as those in type 2 diabetic patients, particularly if they have other cardiovascular risk factors.

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