By Vijay M. Rao, Carlos F. Gonzalez (auth.), Carlos F. Gonzalez M.D., Melvin H. Becker M.D., Joseph C. Flanagan M.D. (eds.)
This e-book has been written for radiologists, ophthalmologists, neurologists, neurosur geons, plastic surgeons, and others attracted to the review of problems with ophthalmologic signs. it's designed to supply contemporary wisdom during this region derived from ultrasonography, computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). some time past decade, the arrival of ultrasonography, computed tomography, and extra lately magnetic resonance imaging has supplied diagnostic photos of the attention, orbit, and mind in a manner that were a dream of many sooner than the boost ment of those concepts. those more moderen modes of analysis have changed a few earlier thoughts, comparable to nuclear drugs imaging and, to a point, vascular experiences and orbitography. There are 3 sections to this booklet. the 1st part is a dialogue of the imaging strategies. the second one is dedicated to the position of those imaging equipment within the evaluate of ophthalmic problems. The final part, facing radiotherapy for ophthalmologic tumors, is incorporated as the present imaging ideas are wanted for therapy making plans. we want to thank the various those who have assisted us in getting ready this manuscript. between those are many librarians, secretaries, trainees, and photographers. Weare particularly indebted to artist Peter Clark for his illustrations and to Mr. Martin Leibo vici, affiliate Curator of recent York collage clinical university and Director of health and wellbeing Sciences Library of Goldwater Memorial health facility, ny urban. additionally, we want to thank our households for his or her aid and patience.
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Additional resources for Diagnostic Imaging in Ophthalmology
1). The horizontal recti are best seen in axial sections (Fig. 2). The course of the superior oblique muscle, from its origin to the trochlea, can be best viewed in the axial plane (Fig. 3). The coronal plane only offers portions of the belly of this muscle on individual slices. 3. 1. Direct sagittal CT scan of the orbit obtained with a Tomoscan 310. Note the inferior and superior rectus muscles in their entire course from the common tendon of Zinn (arrowheads) to their insertion at the globe. The inferior oblique muscle (large arrow) is below the inferior rectus muscle; the intermuscular fat and suspensory ligament of Lockwood (small arrow) are demonstrated.
The ophthalmic artery, which enters the orbit on the inferior surface of the optic nerve, usually passes around the nerve to its superior-medial aspect. The ophthalmic arteries are frequently seen both in the axial and coronal views (Fig. 11). The superior ophthalmic vein has a complex intraorbital course, originating in the extraconal space in the anterior-medial aspect of the orbit (Fig. 12). From here, it enters the intraconal space and travels medially to laterally beneath the superior rectus muscle to exit again from the intraconal space near the superior orbital fissure.
Computed tomographic guidelines for exophthalmos. Axial section at the level of the lenses. The horizontal line drawn between the zygomatic processes (the interzygomatic line) is illustrated. Normally, 40-50% of the globe should fall behind this line, but the percentage will vary with the slice angle, as in this example. On the right, a line from the anterior margin of the globe perpendicular to the interzygomatic line has been drawn. This distance should measure less than 21 mm. When this measurement exceeds 21 mm or when the globes lie entirely or nearly entirely in front of the interzygomatic line, proptosis is present.