By Jérôme Weiss (auth.)
Sea ice is an incredible section of polar environments, specially within the Arctic the place it covers the total Arctic Ocean all through lots of the 12 months. besides the fact that, within the context of weather switch, the Arctic sea ice hide has been declining considerably during the last many years, both by way of its focus or thickness. the ocean ice disguise evolution and weather swap are strongly coupled during the albedo confident suggestions, therefore in all likelihood explaining the Arctic amplification of weather warming. as well as thermodynamics, sea ice kinematics (drift, deformation) seems as a vital think about the evolution of the ice disguise via a discount of the typical ice age (and for this reason of the cover's thickness), or ice export out of the Arctic. it is a first motivation for a greater figuring out of the kinematical and mechanical procedures of sea ice. A extra upstream, theoretical motivation is a greater realizing of the brittle deformation of geophysical gadgets throughout a variety of scales. certainly, because of its very robust kinematics, in comparison e.g. to the Earth’s crust, an unequalled kinematical facts set is offered for sea ice from in situ (e.g. drifting buoys) or satellite tv for pc observations. the following, we overview the hot advances within the knowing of sea ice flow, deformation and fracturing bought from those info. We concentration quite at the scaling homes in time and scale that signify those tactics, and we emphasize the analogies that may be drawn from the deformation of the Earth’s crust. those scaling homes, that are the signature of long-range elastic interactions in the conceal, constrain destiny advancements within the modeling of sea ice mechanics. We additionally express that kinematical and rheological variables akin to general speed, common strain-rate or energy have considerably replaced over the past a long time, accompanying and truly accelerating the Arctic sea ice decline.
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Extra info for Drift, Deformation, and Fracture of Sea Ice: A Perspective Across Scales
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This rather involved extrapolation procedure, detailed in Marsan et al. 2 % of the sea ice area, is accommodated in the brittle regime ([10 day-1). As shown in Sect. 3, this localization of deformation is even reinforced towards smaller time scales as the result of intermittency, arguing for a sea ice deformation essentially accommodated by brittle failure over transient and very localized fracturing episodes. This is in qualitative agreement with the ‘‘old’’ hypothesis of a piecewise, almost-rigid motion of the sea ice cover (Nye 1975).