Drilling: A source book on oil and gas well drilling from by J.A. Short

By J.A. Short

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Sample text

1999). 2 IMPORTANT IMPURITIES A number of impurities can affect how the natural gas is processed: Water. Most gas produced contains water, which must be removed. Concentrations range from trace amounts to saturation. Sulfur species. If the hydrogen sulfide (H2S) concentration is greater than 2 to 3%, carbonyl sulfide (COS), carbon disulfide (CS2), elemental sulfur, and mercaptans* may be present. Mercury. 01 to 180 µg/Nm3. , 1996) NORM. Naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) may also present problems in gas processing.

Note that credit is not given for the heating value associated with H2S in contractual situations. 3% H2S would be burned. 2 WOBBE NUMBER In gas appliances, maintenance of the same combustion characteristics are desirable when one gas composition is switched to another. Several factors must be considered, but one of the more important considerations is maintenance of the same heat release at the burner for a given pressure drop through a control valve. This combustion characteristic is measured by the Wobbe number, defined as the gross heating value (Btu/scf) of the gas divided by the square root of the specific gravity (the ratio of the density of the gas divided by the density of air; both densities evaluated at the same pressure and temperature).

8 Fundamentals of Natural Gas Processing or wellhead. Gas produced in this fashion is also referred to as casinghead gas, oil well gas, or dissolved gas. Nonassociated gas is sometimes referred to as gas-well gas or dry gas. However, this dry gas can still contain significant amounts of NGL components. Roughly 93% of the gas produced in the United States is nonassociated (Energy Information Administration, 2004b). A class of reservoirs, referred to as gas condensate reservoirs, occurs where, because of the high pressures and temperatures, the material is present not as a liquid or a gas but as a very dense, high-pressure fluid.

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