The Digestive System by Kara Rogers

By Kara Rogers

The pride derived from savoring a steak or indulging in an ice cream sundae is just one element of a bigger approach that happens within the human digestive process.

From the instant nutrients enters our mouths till lengthy when we have comprehensive a meal, the physique engages in an in depth regimen designed to continue meals and discard waste.

This accomplished publication examines all of the very important parts taken with eating and digesting nutrition in addition to the ailments and problems that could plague this often missed sector of the human physique.

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As food is broken down, smaller particles flow through the pyloric sphincter, which opens momentarily as a peristaltic wave descends through the antrum toward it. This permits “sampling” of the gastric contents by the duodenum. Gastric Mucosa The inner surface of the stomach is lined by a mucous membrane known as the gastric mucosa. The mucosa is always covered by a layer of thick mucus that is secreted 52 7 The Passage of Food to the Stomach 7 by tall columnar epithelial cells. Gastric mucus is a glycoprotein that serves two purposes: the lubrication of food masses in order to facilitate movement within the stomach and the formation of a protective layer over the lining epithelium of the stomach cavity.

The upper esophageal sphincter (or cricopharyngeus muscle) is located at the level of the cricoid cartilage (a single ringlike cartilage forming the lower part of the larynx wall). 6 inches) of the esophagus that pass through an opening in the diaphragm called the diaphragmatic hiatus. The lower esophageal sphincter is maintained in tension at all times, except in response to a descending contraction wave, at which point it relaxes momentarily to allow the release of gas (belching) or vomiting.

Many carnivores, such as dogs and cats, have no amylase in their saliva. Therefore, their natural diet contains very little starch. The concentrations of bicarbonate, chloride, potassium, and sodium in saliva are directly related to the rate of their flow. There is also a direct relation between bicarbonate concentration and the partial pressure of carbon dioxide in the blood. The concentration of chloride in the blood varies from 5 millimoles per litre at low flow rates to 70 millimoles per litre when the flow rate is high.

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